Call for Lead Author
1. ABOUT ENoP
The European Network of Political Foundations (ENoP) is a cooperation structure, serving as a communication and dialogue tool between the European political foundations and the Institutions of the European Union (EU), as well as civil society actors in the fields of democracy support and development cooperation. Furthermore, the network provides services to its members to facilitate their participation in the respective programmes of the EU.
ENoP brings together 54 member foundations from 22 EU Member States and the United Kingdom. The members are affiliated to six political party families represented in the European Parliament (Renew Europe, EPP, S&D, ECR, Greens/EFA, GUE/NGL), but are independent in their decision-making and financing of international projects.
The activities of political foundations in the fields of democracy support and development cooperation include public campaigning and awareness raising, advocacy work vis-à-vis political institutions and decision makers in their respective home countries, as well as the EU level. The main focus, however, is on the implementation of democracy support and development projects with local partners in more than 100 developing and transition countries throughout the world.
Since March 2019 ENoP is implementing an EU co-funded action grant, called “Strengthening ENoP as actor in support of democratic and pluralistic societies”. The current capacity-building training takes place in the fringes of this project.
The European Network of Political Foundations (hereafter: ENoP) commissions a study on the role of political parties and civil society organizations in ensuring political participation of citizens in representative democracies. The study will consist of three parts, namely: an introduction to the topic, a main body with six country specific chapters and a conclusion. The six country chapters will cover countries with weak or threatened democratic structures, namely:
- Asia: Philippines and Cambodia
- Africa: Benin and Kenya
- Latin America: Bolivia
In this context ENoP seeks to appoint a lead author (hereafter: the author) to lead the writing of the entire study. The author shall also draft the introduction of approximately six pages and the conclusion with recommendations of approximately eight pages and act as contact person for the six selected country experts. The tasks described will be performed according to the provisions and guidelines specified in these Terms of Reference (ToRs).
Civil society organizations and political parties are key instruments for citizens to exercise political participation in representative democracies. The interplay between civil society organizations and political parties can vary significantly depending on the political context of the country of focus and its overall democratic structure. This in turn has major implications for the opportunity of citizens’ political participation. Through an in-depth analysis on the circumstances in which civil society organizations and political parties operate in six countries in Latin-America, Africa and Southeast Asia, the study aims at setting out the criteria for these organizations to ensure the highest possible inclusiveness for citizens of countries with weak or threatened democracies
4. Overall objective of the assignment
The purpose of the study is to describe and compare the different roles and capacities of political parties and civil society groups in guaranteeing citizens’ political participation in representative democracies, and to look into potential conflicts and forms of cooperation between them. The author shall provide in-depth expertise on the different actors of civil society, including political parties, analyzing their key functions and the criteria for usefulness in fostering citizens’ political participation. This shall include a clear set of concrete policy recommendations for the potential inclusion of civil society and political party actors in the democracy promotion policies and programs of the European Union at the end of the Study.
The assignment’s key objectives are:
- a concise overview of the key functions of civil society organizations and political parties in fostering political participation in different parts of the world;
- the organisation and structuring of the study through the preparation of a questionnaire to be used by country experts;
- a set of concrete policy recommendations for the EU, including recommendations for a reform of the existing or the establishment/and design of new country-based engagement with political parties and civil society
For details, see Point 5 and Point 6 of the Terms of Reference.
5. Scope of work
The author holds mere responsibility to draft the introduction and conclusion, with overall responsibility for the content, format and the timely submission of the chapters. The introduction shall be no longer than 6 pages. The summary and recommendations at the end of the study shall not be longer than 8 pages.
List of countries covered by the study:
- Southeast Asia: Philippines and Cambodia
- Africa: Benin and Kenya
- Latin America: Bolivia
6. Specific duties and guiding questions
The lead author shall draft the study based on the chapters received from country experts. Chapters are based on the guiding questions outlined below. While the guiding questions provide overall direction and have to be considered implicit by the author, not all questions needed to be addressed individually and explicitly. The guiding questions are ordered according to the three overall objectives specified in Point 3 of the Terms of Reference:
Key issues at stake:
- Why are civil society groups mostly considered to serve the common good while political parties often have the reputation of serving opportunistic or selfish purposes?
- What is the difference between a civil society group and a socio-economic interest group?
- Which functions can civil society groups, political parties or formalized civil society organizations take to ensure inclusive political participation in a representative democracy?
- How can civil society groups act and how can they influence policy making in pluralistic democracies? What is the influence and role that political parties exercise in policymaking in pluralistic democracies?
- How legitimate is the political requests of civil society groups and organizations?
- How effective and sustainable can civil society groups and organizations operate in a multi-party representative democracy?
- What could be a meaningful division of work between civil society organizations and political parties in ensuring political participation of citizens? How can they ensure to guarantee interests of disadvantaged groups?
- Which specific forms and type of actions could the cooperation between civil society groups and organizations and political parties include?
- Which criteria have to be fulfilled by political parties and which criteria have to be fulfilled by civil society groups to enable them for fruitful cooperation?
- Does cooperation between civil society groups and political parties create problems of credibility or reputation for civil society groups?
- Which advantages and disadvantages does it have when leaders of civil society groups also have leading functions in political parties?
- How and when could the promotion of cooperation between civil society groups and organizations and political parties through the EU or other international donors in a third country create benefits for the democratic development and quality of this country?
- What are the requirements to engage with civil society organizations and political parties in different country contexts?
- How can citizens’ political participation best be encouraged in different country situations (i.e., strong or weak civil society organizations/strong or weak political parties)?
- How can the EU help civil society organizations and political parties to cooperate successfully with each other in third countries?
Introduction, including the following elements:
- Explanation of the study’s purpose
- Definition and description of civil society and its different actors in the field of citizens’ political participation
- Definition and description of political parties and their functions as key instruments of citizens’ political participation
- Presentation of criteria for effective cooperation between civil society organizations and political parties in fostering political participation
Main Body of the study, including the following elements:
- Character, activities, best-practices and failures of main civil society organizations and political parties in arranging citizens’ political participation from six pre- selected countries with weak or threatened democratic structure from Latin- America, Africa and Southeast-Asia.
These short country studies shall be drafted by the main author of the study, based on answers on a detailed questionnaire drafted by the author and implemented by experts in/on these countries.
- Policy recommendations for policymakers from the EU on the contribution that civil society organizations and political parties can make to strengthen political participation and hence democracies in Latin-America, Africa and Asia.
The country-specific chapter shall be based on the questionnaire and answered by the selected country experts. A country expert shall write a short contribution of approximately four pages on their country of expertise based on this questionnaire. Once the country expert has provided a written answer, the lead author shall integrate the ideas, perspectives and inputs of the supplementary author into the region-specific chapter. While not all inputs of the supplementary author need to be integrated into the chapter, they shall serve as a further source of inspiration to the lead author, broadening the perspective of the region-specific chapter.
ENoP shall be the primary point of contact for the author. WG Democracy shall be kept informed of all relevant communication between the ENoP and the author. During the drafting process, WG Democracy may request information on the status of the chapter at any time.
The first draft of the study shall be delivered by 20 December 2021. After the author has provided a first draft, ENoP shall review and assess the contribution. ENoP retains the right to request changes to the first draft, with clear instructions how and where to revise the first draft, if necessary. The author shall deliver the final version of the study by 17 January 2022.
9. Key competencies and experience of author
The author will be selected on the basis of the following set of key competencies and experiences:
- Senior expert on international development cooperation, with at least 7 years of relevant professional experience on political party cooperation in third countries
- Understanding of the EU’s development and democracy support policies, with a strong focus on cooperation with civil society and political parties in partner countries
- Previous engagement in cooperation with civil society organizations, including through strengthening CSOs is a strong asset
- Experience with political party advisory in partner countries is an asset
- Participation in international or regional policy meetings, such as diplomatic forums, working groups, high-level political meetings, policy workshops, etc. is considered an asset
- Fluent in English (both, spoken and written).
10. Draft timeline and estimated duration of assignment
- Start of the assignment: 25 November 2021
- First draft delivery: 20 December 2022
- Study delivery deadline: 17 January 2021
Number of Days
Integration of country reports into the overall report
Research and writing (including draft, revisions and
Mission’s Total Days
11. Procedure for expression of interest
- Candidates should address their applications to ENoP acting Policy & Liaison Officer Jasmina Mršo by email to: email@example.com
- Deadline: 19 November 2021
- Applications should include:
- Cover letter
- Links to published articles and studies
- 3 recent relevant publications in pdf format
- Detailed service price quote for the assignment